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Data Converters
Data converters are circuits used to interface between the digital signal processing (DSP) core of a system and the analog world. The processing of signals is predominantly performed in the digital world rather than in the analog world. This is because digital circuits can achieve tremendo...

Circuit Sage Tools

Delta Sigma ADC Performance Calculator (Ideal Single Loop):
The tool calculates ideal single loop multilevel quantizer ADC quantization error power and dynamic range from full scale signal power, signal bandwidth, sampling rate, quantizer levels, and order of the Delta-Sigma ADC.
Nyquist ADC Performance Calculator:
The tool calculates ADC quantization error power, dynamic range, and aperture uncertainty (less than 0.5LSB) from full scale signal power, number of ADC bits and maximum operating frequency of the Nyquist ADC

Optimal Phase Margin of second order systems:
Mathcad worksheet calculates optimal phase margin for 2nd order systems
Optimal Phase Margin of second order systems (pdf):
.pdf of optimal phase margin routine
Optimal Vdsat for Folded Cascode Opamps:
Mathcad worksheet calculates optimal vdsat of folded cascode current sources
Optimal Vdsat for Folded Cascode Opamps (pdf):
.pdf of optimal vdsat routine

Online Tools

MATLAB Toolbox for SD modulators:
Richard Schreier's MATLAB toolbox for Sigma-Delta modulators
Mathcad 2nd order sigma-delta modulator design:
Mathcad example file to design a 2nd order sigma-delta modulator

Stanford tool to simulate Sigma-Delta modulators
System-level communication systems design tool
System-level simulation tool, $40
System-level design tool
System-level tool can import MATLAB/Mathcad files
Op-amp design X-Windows software predicts opamp performance based on parameters entered by used
Hspice conversion program allows for easy modification of hspice netlists
Dac SYNthesis software by Robert Neff from Berkeley automatically generates a DAC layout
TI's ADCPro:
Software to analyze ADC-captured data

Analog Devices' ADIsimDAC:
Select ADI device and enter operating conditions, plots spctrum
Sigma-Delta ADC tutorial from ADI:
ADI's Java applet shows how a SD ADC works

Online Articles
Continuous-time delta-sigma modulators thesis:
Presents the implementation of a sigma-delta modulator using continuous-time techniques
MIDAS example #1:
Berkeley example of using MIDAS
MIDAS example #2:
Berkeley example of using MIDAS
Berkeley ADC/DAC course lectures - Fall 2007:
Berkeley's data converters' course lectures
Berkeley opamp class project:
Fully Differential OTA for 13-bit pipelined ADC
UC-Berkeley ADC/DAC lectures:
From EECS290Y, "A/D Interfaces in VLSI Technology"
Analog Electronics class notes at Georgia Tech:
Lecture notes and problems from analog electronics course at Georgia Tech
Maxim ADC/DAC application notes:
Over 100 application notes and some Excel spreadsheets from Maxim
Texas Instruments' "Understanding Data Converters":
Application note discusses how data sheets' specifications affect performance
Texas Instruments' application notes:
Hundreds of application notes by topic
National's Current Feedback application note:
Discusses the performance of current feedback op-amps in closed-loop topologies
National's op-amp circuit collection:
Op-amp topologies for signal generation and processing
National's 1974 IC Op-amp tutorial:
Thorough analysis of an integrated two-stage bipolar op-amp
DAC class project:
8-bit R-2R DAC class project at the University of Utah
8-bit 200 MHz DAC presentation from Sam Blackman at Berkeley:
Discusses topology and design trade-offs given a set of specifications
Search over 1 million articles
Berkeley collection of papers on ADC and switched-capacitor circuit design:
Many papers and projects by Andrew Abo of Berkeley, plus his thesis
Berkeley thesis on sigma-delta modulators:
Arnold Feldman's thesis discusses architectural and circuit techniques for sigma-delta modulators
Berkeley thesis on decimation filters:
Carol Barrett's thesis presents a decimation filter for GSM/DECT applications
Linear Technologies data converter application notes:
Two dozen data converter application notes, including a data acquisition circuit collection
MIT's OpenCourseWare microelectronics course:
Microelectronics' course covers physics' effects in semiconductor devices and basic circuit analysis - Fall 2005
Berkeley's ADC/DAC course webcast - Fall 2007:
Berkeley's data converters' course webcast (requires RealPlayer)
ADC papers from UC-Berkeley:
From mid- to late 90's
ADC thesis:
Sigma-Delta modulator for transceivers
Digitally-calibrated ADCs in deep-submicron CMOS PhD thesis:
Presents adaptive digital technique to calibrate pipelined ADCs, demonstrated in 0.13-um CMOS
Oversampling ADCs in CMOS paper from U. of Toronto:
Tutotial of oversampling sigma-delta converters for high frequency applications discusses topologies and issues
Oversampling, continuous-time sigma-delta ADC paper:
Oversampling of 20-MHz-bandwidth signals by combining time-interleaving and continuous-time techniques
Third-Order Sigma-Delta ADC for audio paper from Professor Moon at Oregon State:
Combines double-sampling switched-capacitor switched-RC techniques to implement a 0.13-um delta-sigma ADC that works from 0.9-V
500-MS/s, 5-bit ADC in 65-nm CMOS paper from MIT:
6-channel, time-interleaved, SAR ADC for UWB application
500-MS/s, 5-bit ADC in 65-nm CMOS presentation from MIT:
Time-interleaved SAR ADC for UWB application
100-kS/s 12-bit ADC for Wireless Sensor Networks applications: paper from MIT:
12-bit ADC implemented in 0.25-um CMOS draws 25 uA from 1-V supply
Power-saving techniques for CMOS ADCs:
Techniques demonstrated on a 65-nm CMOS time-interleaved ADC
Low-voltage design for ultra-low-power applications presentation:
Presents techniques to meet challenges of ultra-low-power applications such as WSNs. Prototypes 0.3-V SoC and sub-1V ADCs in 65-nm CMOS
ADCs for UWB thesis from the MIT:
Analysis of UWB ADCs requirements and demonstration of a 4-bit, 4-GS/s ADC in 0.18-um CMOS
ADC performance metrics presentation from India Institute of Technology:
Comprehensive presentation shows performance metrics of ADCs and typical requirements of various applications
Power-optimized pipelined CMOS ADCs thesis from Georgia Tech:
Analysis og high-speed, medium-resolution pipelined ADCs, techniques to reduce power dissipation, 10-bit, 100-MS/s pipelined ADC implemented in 0.18-um CMOS
ADCs for SoC sensor applications thesis from Georgia Tech:
Includes frequency and time domain modeling of ADCs and a design framework for ADCs.
Sigma-Delta modulator in 90-nm CMOS thesis from Georgia Tech:
Multi-rate, multi-bit sigma delta ADCS for wireless applications, techniques to reduce power consumption of sigma-delta ADCs.
Mixed-signal IC Design course notes and video from Boise State, 2006:
27 lectures and videos from Professor Jacob Baker, very good.
ADC lecture notes from Phillip Allen:
Lecture 10 has >100 pages, including topologies and performance metrics
Sigma-delta presentation from Instituto de Microelectronica de Sevilla:
Nice presentation targeting ADSL applications, delta-sigma implemented in 0.35-micron CMOS
Lowpass and bandpass delta-sigma modulators presentation from ADI's Richard Schrier (hosted by MIT):
Very good guest lecture as part of an MIT OCW course, stars from the basics and buils from that
Imran Ahmed's tutorials and papers at University of Toronto:
Tutorials on ADC architectures and pipelined ADCs. Papers and his thesis on pipelined ADC's
Continuous-time delta-sigma modulator with hybrid active/passive filter topology paper and presentation from UT - Austin:
Scroll down. Implements loop filter of delta-sigma with a combination of RC-, active-RC, and gm-C filters to get the best of both worlds (active and passive) in filter design. Implements in 0.25-um CMOS, 1.8 mA from 1.5 Volts.
Data converters presentations from UT - Austin:
Various presentations as part of a seminar series
DAC quantization noise cancellation technique paper from UC - Davis:
Proposes adding an adaptive filter to cancel DAC quantization noise, simulation results presented.
UC-Berkeley ADC lectures on data converters (EE247):
In pdf format, for various years
National's ABCs of ADCs:
Great introduction to ADCs
Pipelined ADCs for wireless comm.: thesis from Helsinki University of Technology:
Explores using PADCs for wireless receivers, analysis of the requirements of each of the PADC sub-blocks and trade-offs of circuit topologies.
Grounding data converters app note from ADI:
Grounding techniques for data converters.
Aperture jitter app note from ADI:
Effects of jitter in ADC's SNR and how to measure jitter.
Importance of supply decoupling on ADC performance App note from ADI:
Importance of decoupling the supply and what happens to the ADC performance if you don't.

Continuous Time Sigma Delta Modulation for A/d Conversion in Radio Receivers by L. Breems and J. Huijsing:
From description: "...main focus is on dynamic range, linearity and power efficiency aspects of sigma-delta modulators..."
Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulators for High-Speed A/D Conversion by J. Sherry W. Snelgrove:
Delta-sigma modulators that use a continuous-time loop filter, MATLAB routines, simulated and measured results for a 1-GHz ADC presented. A tad bit expensive.
Design of Multi-Bit Delta-Sigma A/D Converters by Y. Geerts, M. Steyaert, and W. Sansen:
High-resolution, high-speed ADC's targeting ADSL and other high-speed applications
Systematic Design for Optimisation of Pipelined ADCs by J. Goes, J Vital, and J. Franca:
General considerations, self-calibration technique to extend linearity of pipelined ADC's, design examples with layout considerations, simulated, and measured results
CMOS Data Converters for Communications by M. Gustavsson, J. Wikner, and N. Tan:
How to derive data converter requirements for a given communications system, architectures and building blocks. Seems like there are a few copies moderately priced so that's good.
Modular Low-Power, High-Speed CMOS Analog-To-Digital Converter for Embedded Systems by K. Lin and A. Kemna:
8-12 bit folding and interpolated ADC's with an eye on low power applications
Top-Down Design of High-Performance Sigma-Delta Modulators by F. Medeiro, B. Perez-Verdu:
Presents CAD methodology to design delta-sigma mod's using in-house tools (SDOPT, FRIDGE, ASIDES). Three design examples using the proposed methodology are discussed.
Delta-Sigma Data Converters: Theory, Design, and Simulation by S. Norsworthy, R. Schreier, and G. Temes:
from the back cover: "...offers a detailed treatment of the analysis, design, simulation, and testing of the full range of today's leading delta-sigma data converters..."
The Design of Low-Voltage, Low-Power Sigma-Delta Modulators by S. Rabii and B. Wooley:
from description: "...an analysis of power dissipation in sigma-delta modulators is presented, and a low-voltage implementation of a digital-audio performance A/D converter based on the results of this analysis is described..."
Principles of Data Conversion System Design by Razavi:
from description: "...Topics covered include: sampling circuits and architectures, D/A and A/D architectures; comparator and op amp design; calibration techniques; testing and characterization..."
Data Converters for Wireless Standards by C. Shi and I. Mostafa:
Prototype data converter designs for various wireless standards. Very inexpensive used copies available
High Speed Analog-to-Digital Converters by W. Sansen and J. Huijsing:
Paper compilation of DAC's and PLL's for various applications
Circuit Techniques for Low-Voltage and High-Speed A/D Converters by M. Waltari and K. Halonen:
Low-voltage circuit blocks and techniques for pipelined ADC's
Besser Associates' High-Speed BiCMOS Design for Mixed-Signal Circuits:
Data converter and other circuit types in SiGe, GaAs, InP technologies
Delta-Sigma Modulators: Modeling, Design and Applications by George Bourdopoulos:
from description: "...provides an overview of the architectures, the quantizer models, the design techniques and the implementation issues encountered in the study of the delta%u2013sigma modulators..."
Understanding Delta-Sigma Data Converters by Richard Schreier and Gabor Temes:
from the description: "...The authors make the material accessible to all design engineers by focusing on developing an understanding of the physical operation rather than getting mired in complex mathematical treatments and derivations..."
Low-Power Low-Voltage Sigma-Delta Modulators in Nanometer CMOS by M. Steyaert and W. Sansen:
From description: "...a novel systematic study on the full feedforward Sigma-Delta topology is presented in this book. As a design example, a fourth-order single-loop full feedforward Sigma-Delta modulator design in a 130-nm pure digital CMOS technology is presented. This design is the first design using the full feedforward Sigma-Delta topology and reaches the highest conversion speed among all the 1-V Sigma-Delta modulators to date..."